Biological Adaptations
Art Baker

Herbivores (grazers and browsers - bison, rabbits, horses, sheep, deer, goats, giraffes, etc. ) are equipped to handle an exclusive raw leaf/grass diet. Granivores (primarily birds) thrive mostly on the raw grains of various grasses. Carnivores (cats, lions, tigers, wolves, etc.) eat raw meat, but even they cannot thrive on an all meat diet. Frugivores (apes, gorillas, chimpanzees, monkeys, orangutans etc.) thrive mostly on raw fruits, succulent fruit-like vegetables, roots, shoots, nuts and seeds. Omnivores (hogs, brown bears, raccoons, etc.) are "everything eaters" who thrive on nearly all raw foods. Insectivores (ant-eaters, amphibians, other insects) thrive on raw insects.Those foods and influences to which a species is biologically adapted are those deemed "natural" to its disposition as derived by the sum total of their biological heritage from millions of years of evolution. Cumulative adaptations in each species over eons of time determines their natural dietary needs. For instance: The koala bear of Australia is adapted to eating a variety of gum leaves. The giraffe's long neck allows it to feed on the foliage of trees. The lion's fangs and claws allow it to kill and render animals for food. The eagle's keen eyesight and powerful claws make it a formidable predator of ground rodents and small game. Carnivores have become adapted to eating other animals.Non-carnivorous animals have adapted to eating vegetable matter as food.  Dietary adaptations more than anything else determine the features and characteristics of all creatures.

Humans Are Not an Exception

It is a basic premise of Natural Hygiene that humans, like all other creatures in nature are provided with all the materials and conditions required to maintain health. Species throughout nature intuitively restrict themselves to a limited variety of foods to which they are specifically adapted. We must conclude that humans are also intended to partake only of those foods to which we are physiologically adapted in order to live healthfully. Humans should be studied as a member of the whole biological community, and compared anatomically and physiologically with other species to ascertain our true dietary requirements. When considering the character of human anatomy and physiology relative to our natural diet we must do so within the context of nature, rather than in the artificial environment of modern life. In this way, we consider our natural foods as those that are consonant with our physiological faculties, rather than those that we have "acquired a taste for".

Determining Our Natural Diet is Not a Matter of Belief.

Tradition and popularity are the poorest ways to determine a proper diet. Recent changes in our external environment do not alter our biological adaptations, our internal makeup, or our natural needs in order to establish optimum well being. Biological adaptations have been spurred on by stress over eons of time and by the need to adapt. They are slow to develop requiring extremely long periods of time to evolve. Our highly industrialized environment involves more social adaptations or accommodations, and not physical or anatomical changes. By living according to our natural adaptations we can actually withstand the stress of modern life far better than if we transgress our biological needs.

The only authority you should rely on when it comes to determining what foods are best to eat is the human body. It is anatomy and physiology that decrees whether food is "acceptable" or "harmful". Determining our natural diet is not a matter of belief: its basis lies in scientific fact regarding our biological, biochemical, anatomical, and physiological features.
Health vs. Profit: A Major Conflict of Interest

We are continually led to believe that disease causation is a mystery, or is genetically beyond our control. Most people are eager for excuses to avoid scientific facts regarding diet and disease causation, thereby enabling them to continue eating conveniently yet unconsciously, which is extremely hazardous to their health. In the United States, the animal food and junk food industries financially support and bias most nutritional research in major universities and institutions. Over the last five decades, the largest contributors to Harvard for nutritional research have been the sugar, meat and dairy industries. Specifically these include: the American Meat Institute, Coca Cola, the Florida Sugar Cane League, Frito-Lay, Hershey Foods, McDonald's, National Dairy Council, the National Meat and Livestock Board, Oscar Mayer, General Mills, General Foods, Pillsbury, the Sugar Research Foundation, the National Confectioners Association, and the Tuna Research Foundation, just to name a few. The American Society of Clinical Nutrition who publishes the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, is supported by CocaCola, NutraSweet, Nabisco, Borden, and numerous pharmaceutical companies.  Hello? Do we have a conflict of interest here? Industrial food giants control diet recommendations in the United States. Animal and dairy food industries have used false nutritional dogma for decades to promote its products (for detail see: The Truth About Protein). Schools and advertisements teach that meat and dairy foods are essential for wellness. This is the result of billions of dollars spent to influence public opinion, public information, and public curriculum. Big industry is driven by economics, not science. Powerful lobbyists of animal and junk food industries wield tremendous economic power. Elected and appointed members of government influenced by political contributions make dietary recommendations that are at odds with nutritional scientific research. Even though the USDA's latest food pyramid de-emphasizes meat, poultry and high-fat foods, publication of the pyramid was delayed for five years while stronger stances for these products were negotiated.

Misleading, Deceitful Food Labeling and Deceptively Low RDA's

In a recent nationwide survey, just 9% polled had eaten at least three vegetable servings and two fruit servings the previous day. Even if the public did follow the USDA diet recommendations of the new food pyramid, their diet would still be inadequate in fresh produce needed for antioxidant protection. The new guidelines are too high in fat and protein, and too low in fiber and plant based nutrients. Plant based diets are loaded in phytochemicals, vitamins, mineral and fiber. On a diet centered on fresh produce for instance, 1,500 mg of vitamin C will be consumed daily, as well as additional bioflavonoids. The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for vitamin C is 60 mg, ridiculously low, as are most RDA's of other plant-based nutrients. Low RDA's are maintained so processed food products do not appear as deficient as they actually are. Most commercial nutritional information and food labeling is similarly misleading or outright deceptive. Processed food and fast food producers use portion size and weight to calculate information, presenting a lie to unsuspecting consumers. Is whole milk 4% fat, for example? Do the math. Milk contains 4 grams of fat per 100 grams of milk. But each 100 grams contains 70 calories. Milk carries 9 calories per gram of fat, so whole milk actually contains 50% of calories from fat (4 x 9/70). Even "low-fat" dairy products are high-fat foods. By manipulating "nutritional data" in terms of weight, fat content is camouflaged. The meat and fast food industry plays the same numbers game. McDonald's 91% fat free burger contains 45% of calories from fat. In spite of this misinformation however, forthright nutritional truths are now reaching the public since more people are looking for answers to their ills. The fact remains, if animal foods are the center of your diet its impossible to live in accord with the overwhelming scientific evidence regarding true human health. The establishment reinforces dietary errors that people prefer to make, and convinces the public that it doesn't matter what they eat. Any processed, denatured, fragmented, chemicalized "food" will meet the body's needs as long as we take vitamins, minerals, antacids, headache and allergy remedies, and other drugs (see: Junk Food Disguised as Health Food, and No Need For Supplements). The message conveyed to the public is: "it's OK to continue your present diet so long as you take supplements and pharmaceuticals". This lie is attractive, since its what people want to believe. Rather than nutritional deficiencies however, the vast majority of illness in the United States is the result of dietary excess of biologically improper foods. Americans ARE deficient in certain nutrients, but NOT because of lack of availability of whole natural foods. Deficiencies are caused by nutrient antagonists, and consuming a devitalized overly processed diet that we are not designed for in the first place. Nutrient antagonists rob the body of its vital nutrient reserves, and contribute to disease.
Scientific Nutrition vs. Commercial Nutrition

The first question in forming a scientific, rather than commercial approach to human nutrition is this: Of what biological disposition is the human organism? What is our natural food? Are we true carnivores who secure their nutrient needs not only from raw flesh, but also from raw blood, bones, gristle, and offal from the fresh raw kill? Are we true herbivores (grazers) who thrive on lettuce, grasses, raw grains, celery, etc., as do horses, cows and sheep? Are we granivores like birds who thrive mostly on raw seeds of grasses and grains? Are we natural omnivores who *thrive* in health regardless of the foodstuffs consumed? Or are we frugivores who can thrive on a diet of raw fresh bananas, grapes, apples, oranges, or melons meal after meal?

The human digestive system and physiology determines our optimum diet. By understanding the physiological processes that accompany food digestion and absorption, proper dietary habits can be scientifically determined. The major physical processes of digestion are basically the same for all human beings regardless of race, culture and geographic location. These processes should be studied in relation to human health in order to develop an accurate science of our true nutritional and dietary needs. A wealth of information exists about the physiology of food digestion and absorption. Unfortunately, however, "modern" nutritional science has often depended upon experiments on rats and artificially induced deficiencies in erroneous attempts to determine human dietary needs. A more reasonable approach to ascertain our actual dietary nature is to study human anatomy and physiology. In this way, characteristics of our proper diet can be deduced that are in accordance with the inherent nature and anatomical makeup of humankind. This approach does not depend on contrived animal experiments, nor is it biased by commercial processed food interests (including the meat, dairy, grain, and junk food industries) who have dictated for decades our traditional diet. Profit is not the motive of this investigation: health is. Human physiological capabilities and biological pre-dispositions are the proper basis in determining our actual dietary requirements.

Cooked vs. Raw Food: What's the Difference?

Today's "nutritionists" are subservient to the "basic four food groups" and "food group pyramid" concepts as perpetuated by big industry in this country. According to these nutritionists, humans do not have a fixed diet as other animals in nature. Rather, we are omnivorous creatures that are supposed to partake of numerous cooked foods at virtually every meal in order to satisfy our nutritional requirements. Of the 80 millions species on earth, all thrive on raw fresh food. Only humans cook their food. Cooking equates to fire. Fire burns and destroys living tissue including nutrients, turning them into toxic substances. (For further detail see: The Magic of Fresh Produce). It is no coincidence that cancer, heart attacks, stroke, diabetes and chronic disease kill humans at half their potential life span. Species in nature live on average, seven times past their age of maturity. Humans mature in their late teens to early twenties. Do the math. The average life span in robust health for humans is actually well over 100-140 years when we live each day according to the Essentials of Health. Lethargic lifestyles and far too many toxic "empty" calories from food that we are not biologically adapted to, kills us at midlife.

Are We Natural Meat-Eaters or Are We Natural Vegetarians?
Sink Your Teeth into This!

Most "nutritionists" assert that we have definite carnivorous leanings, and some have even termed our incisor teeth "fangs" in defense of their erroneous position that humans are natural meat-eaters! If you look at the various species in the animal kingdom, each is equipped with teeth that are ideally suited to masticate a particular type of food. Herbivores (like the cow) have 24 molars, eight jagged incisors in the lower jaw and a horny palate in the upper jaw. Their jaws move vertically, laterally, forward, and backward, enabling the herbivore to tear and grind coarse grasses. Omnivores (like the hog) may have tusk-like canines allowing them to dig up roots. Frugivores (like the chimpanzee) have 32 teeth: sixteen in each jaw including four incisors, two cuspids, four bicuspids, and six molars. The cuspids are adapted for cracking nuts, and the uniform articulation of the teeth enables the frugivore to mash and grind fruits. On the contrary, carnivores (like the cat family) have markedly developed canines that are long, sharp, cylindrical, pointed, and set apart from the other teeth. Fangs and sharp pointed teeth that penetrate and kill, that rip and tear flesh, are a feature of all true carnivores (except certain birds). The powerful jaws of the carnivore move only vertically, and are ideal for ripping and tearing flesh that is swallowed virtually whole and then acted upon by extremely potent gastric juices. Human teeth are not designed for tearing flesh as in the lion, wolf or dog, but rather compare closely with other fruit-eating animals. Human teeth correspond almost identically to the chimpanzees and other frugivores. The complete absence of spaces between human teeth characterizes us as the archetype frugivore. The "canine" teeth of humans are short, stout, and slightly triangular. They are less pronounced and developed than the orangutans, who rarely kills and eats raw flesh in its natural environment. Human canines  in no way resemble the long, round, slender canines of the true carnivore. Human teeth are not curved  or sharp like the wolves or tigers, nor are they wide and flat like the grass and grain-eating species.  Human teeth are actually like the fruit-eating monkeys, and the human mouth is best suited for eating  succulent fruits and vegetables.  It would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, for humans to eat raw flesh without the aid of fork and knife. To term our incisor teeth "fangs" or even to liken them as such is outrageous.
   ..              .....
                       Wolf                                                                                       Human

Comparative Anatomy

Natural carnivores have the inherent anatomical equipment provided as their birthright with which to apprehend, capture, kill, and rend their quarry. Dogs have powerful jaws that inflict fatal wounds to their prey. Humans however, have no sharp claws for tearing; no sharply pointed fangs for slashing; nor are our eyes or olfactory senses well developed for hunting. Nor is the human body designed to run fast enough to capture prey. Humans cannot grab animals in their mouth as do dogs, coyotes, wolves, jackals, lions, tigers, or cats. We instead inflict more damage with our hands and brute strength. Humans do however, have marvelous fingers, thumbs, and limbs for reaching, climbing and grabbing. Our natural food gathering capacity is very similar to the chimpanzees. Fruitarians of the primate order also have revolving joints in their shoulder, wrist, and elbow joints that allow for free movement in all directions. Frugivores have soft pliable, sensitive hands and fingers with opposable thumbs and flat nails that are perfect for grasping and gathering fruit.
.......... ........................
                     Tiger                                                       .....          ..                   Human

Regarding the extremities of the other species, herbivores possess hooves allowing them to walk easily about grassy plains, and carnivores possess sharp claws allowing them to violently attack their prey. Tree-dwellers and fruit-gatherers also have stereoscopic binocular vision that makes vision precise enough to ascertain the position of tree limbs and objects.

Another anatomical comparison among species in the animal kingdom involves the structure of the skin. All vegetarian animals have abundant sweat glands. In carnivores, their sweat glands are atrophied and inactive. They are exempt from profuse sweating in order to prevent a large fluid loss that would cause concentrated precipitation of nitrogenous wastes (from flesh-eating). This explains why meat-eaters suffer in hot weather while vegetarians remain relatively comfortable.

Comparative Digestive Physiology

Among the various species throughout nature, the length of their particular alimentary canals also differs greatly in relation to their natural food. The gut of the carnivore is 3-6 times the length of their body. They require a short, smooth, fast-acting gut since their natural flesh diet becomes quite toxic and cannot be retained within the intestine for long without poisonous putrefaction taking place. The gut of the herbivore is sacculated for greater surface area, and is 30 times the length of their body. Its herb and grass diet is coarse and fibrous, requiring longer digestion to break down cellulose. The length of the omnivore's alimentary canal is generally 6 times its body trunk size. The gut of the frugivore (like humans) is also sacculated and is 12 times the length of its body. The length of the adult human alimentary canal is about 30 feet. The human digestive tract is about four times as long as the carnivores. The intestine of the carnivore is short and smooth in order to dissolve food rapidly and pass it quickly out of the system prior to the flesh putrefying. The human digestive tract is corrugated for the specific purpose of retaining food as long as possible until all nutriment has been extracted, which is the worst possible condition for the digestion and processing of flesh foods. Meat moves quickly through the carnivore's digestive tract and is quickly expelled. The human lengthy intestine cannot handle low-fiber foods including meat and dairy very quickly at all. As a consequence, animal foods decrease the motility of the human intestine and putrefaction almost invariably occurs (as evidenced by foul smelling stools and flatulence), resulting in the release of many poisonous by-products as the low-fiber food passes through, ever so slowly. In humans, eventual constipation may develop on a meat-centered diet. Colon cancer is also common, both of which are rare or non-existent on a high-fiber diet centered around raw fruits and vegetables.

Stomach This!

Stomach form and size among various species also vary markedly. In the carnivore the stomach is a small, round sack designed to dissolve flesh quickly and then pass it on for removal.  In plant eaters (particularly ruminants) stomachs are complicated adjoining sacks with ring-like convolutions. The frugivore stomach (including in humans) is oblong and is characterized by folds called rugae which serve to retain food for relatively long periods.

Organ sizes of various species also markedly vary. The liver and kidneys in the carnivore are much larger than in vegetarian animals. A lions kidney is twice the size of a bulls, and not much smaller than the elephants. This allows the lion to handle large amounts of protein and nitrogenous waste products contained in its natural flesh diet. The carnivores huge liver secretes larger amounts of bile into the small intestine than does the herbivores liver. There is a direct relation between the quantity of meat eaten and the amount of bile secreted. Meat-eating therefore, places a strain on the small liver of humans which impairs the organ's function over a long period of time.

When you place humans on a diet for which they are NOT naturally adapted, this places unnatural stress on the organs of elimination. Humans have never adapted to the carnivorous diet that is high in animal products. The human liver is smaller than the carnivores and as a result, we cannot detoxify the poisonous products inherent within animal foods such as uric acid (discussed below). Our kidneys are also smaller and become diseased from overwork caused by a diet high in animal protein.

Comparative Digestive Enzymes

The hydrochloric acid concentrations of various species are an additional determinant of their natural diet. A carnivores gastric juice is highly acidic, serving to prevent putrefaction while flesh undergoes digestion. Plant-eaters however, secrete a much less concentrated and less abundant quantity of hydrochloric acid that does not curtail the bacterial decomposition of flesh: a process that begins at the animals moment of death. Flesh is digested in an acid medium within the stomach. Humans secrete a very weak concentration of hydrochloric acid relative to the carnivore, and little of the protein-splitting enzyme pepsinogen. Carnivorous animals have concentrations of these flesh-digesting secretions 1100% greater than do humans. Lions can rip off and swallow your hand whole and quite readily digest it.

Uric Acid: Toxic Component of Meat to Humans

About 5% of the flesh volume of all animals consists of waste material called uric acid that is normally eliminated by the kidneys. Uric acid is a poison to humans because it is toxic and non-metabolizable. Nearly 100% of Americans suffer some form of osteoporosis which is due in large part, to the acidic end-products of meat (and grain) eating. All carnivorous animals however, secrete the enzyme uricase that breaks down uric acid so it can be readily eliminated. Humans do not generate this enzyme. Instead, we ABSORB uric acid when meat is eaten. As a result, calcium-urate crystals form and concentrate in joints, feet, and in the lower back. These deposits lead to arthritis, gout, rheumatism, bursitis, and lower back pain. Humans are physiologically unsuited to utilizing meat as food. Natural carnivores swallow hunks of carrion almost unchewed, and the flesh is digested in the stomach with ease and facility. If humans were to do the same, we would digest very little of it before putrefaction set in and illness ensued. For humans, meat is a pathogenic and nutritionally deficient food.

Saliva pH Varies Widely Among Species

The saliva pH of various species is another determinant of their natural diet.  In carnivores, their saliva glands are small and secrete an acid saliva having little or no effect on starch, which makes sense since flesh is virtually starch-free. Omnivores (like pigs) have tremendous salivary glands that secrete copious quantities of starch-splitting enzymes. Humans only have one starch-splitting enzyme, versus a multitude of them in omnivores and other natural starch-eating animals. Our ptyalin is very limited. This rules us out as being true granivores (starch-eaters) which includes grains and cereals. Frugivores have salivary glands that secrete alkaline saliva, containing only moderate amounts of ptyalin, which initiates starch digestion. This tells us that humans and other frugivores can easily digest the small amount of starch contained in fresh fruits, nuts, and leafy greens, and that humans are not intended to subsist on a diet of highly starchy grain foods as many currently do.  (Diabetes mellitus is largely the result of consuming large amounts of refined sugars and starches. Even eating predominantly of whole grains and natural legumes as dietary staples can be injurious because of the need for excessive starch digestion).

Beef: It's Not What's For Dinner

In summary, meat is not a suitable item of diet for humans for the following physiological reasons:
1. Flesh eating animals have a short intestine and bowel enabling them to rapidly expel the putrefactive flesh, while humans have a long, complicated alimentary canal which enables plant nutrients to be slowly absorbed and assimilated; 2. Flesh eaters have a different type of intestinal bacterial flora than non-meat eaters (including humans); 3. Flesh eaters have long sharp teeth, whereas humans have the teeth of frugivores; 4. Humans can grind their jaw, but flesh-eaters cannot: their jaws move vertically only; 5. Humans sweat through their skin (as do other non meat-eaters such as horses, cows, monkeys, antelopes etc.) whereas flesh-eaters sweat through their tongues; 6. Humans suck their liquids, whereas carnivores lap their liquids; 7. Human saliva contains ptyalin (to commence starch digestion), whereas flesh-eaters have no ptyalin; 8. Flesh-eaters secrete 10 times the quantity of hydrochloric acid in to the stomach than does a human (at a concentration much greater as well). This enables carnivores to cope with ingested bone, flesh, feathers, sinews, etc. True meat-eaters take nourishment from practically the whole prey not just muscle and selected organ meat as do humans; 9. Carnivores have large livers to aid in detoxifying the blood, and to generate massive bile secretion, but humans have a comparatively small liver; 10. Carnivores generate the enzyme uricase to metabolize uric acid, a naturally occurring waste product in meat. Humans do not generate nor metabolize uricase. As a result, uric acid is absorbed, which leads to age-related disease. When humans started eating meat they did not over a period of thousands of years, develop fangs, claws, the ability to secrete uricase, or the concentrated hydrochloric acid solution which characterizes true carnivores. You need but examine the Eskimos who, perhaps, have eaten meat the longest to confirm this. Species adapt very slowly to changed environmental conditions. According to a continuous dietary study of 6,500 Chinese (see: The China Study) that began in 1983, nutritional biochemist T. Colin Campbell of Cornell University who is also a member of the National Academy of Sciences, concluded that humans are still a vegetarian species, and that only in the last few thousand years have meat and animal products become staples of the western diet. According to Dr. Campbell, "That's not nearly enough time to evolve new mechanisms to give us protection from these kinds of foods".

Psyched Out Yet?

Even psychologically, we are not true carnivores. Natural meat-eaters stalk and pounce their prey after overtaking it with blinding bursts of speed. Carnivorous animals sink their fangs deeply into its flesh, crushing and killing it. The dead bloody prey is then ripped to shreds, the gory chunks swallowed with little mastication. Humans are not natural killers and do not psychologically savor these images, nor can they relish eating raw the animals blood, guts, bones, and organs. Humans instead cook their meat, which literally means they are eating burnt dead flesh because fire actually destroys living tissue. (For detail see: The Magic of Fresh Produce). Cooked meat has no relation to live food or to the living flesh of a freshly slaughtered animal. Live plants however, retain their form when picked for many days after. When they wilt, we do not eat them. Our mental disposition matches our true dietary disposition. Our aesthetic standards attribute beauty to colorful fruit and shady trees, not to bleeding, dying animals. Contrary to acquired perversions we do not naturally enjoy eating dead animals, bloody flesh, live insects, or raw woody grasses (grains).  We savor fruit. In ascertaining our natural dietary equipment, you must envision us in a state of nature (rather than skyscrapers, freeways, and burger stands) where we once functioned totally with our natural provisions to acquire and eat foods. Stoves, microwaves, toasters, pots and pans were not furnished at birth as part of our natural equipment.

Are We Natural Vegetarians?

The biological equipment of humans is such that the body is most capable of obtaining complete and optimal nutrition from plant foods. Actually however, we are NOT true vegetarians either. Many natural herbivores (horses, cows, sheep, etc.) that subsist on green leaves and grasses (ruminants) have four stomachs containing special enzymes including cellulase that can digest the carbohydrate cellulose, which is totally undigestible by humans. Leafy greens that make-up your salad are actually high calorie foods. Yet salad is a diet food that aids in weight loss. Most of the calories of vegetables are bound within cellulose, whose fuel value is largely unobtainable to our system (except for extremely valuable mineral matter from which our body does derive great benefit). True herbivores however, are fully capable of attaining energy from herbs and grasses since they secrete the enzyme cellulase, which breaks down and liberates the energy within the sugar molecule cellulose. Unlike purely natural vegetarians in nature then, the human stomach can not process large amounts of cellulose. Man cannot regurgitate and re chew his food as does the cow. Nor can the human stomach efficiently digest a mixture of all different types of foods as do true omnivores. Though nearly anything can be put into the human stomach and virtually has, our physiology is such that only foods that we are biologically adapted to can effectively be digested when eaten in compatible combinations according to the natural limitations of digestive chemistry (see: Food Combining).

Science Verifies That Humans' Ancestors Were Frugivores

Recent research by anthropologists shows that we had an arboreal past. Our genetic ancestors were once tree dwellers. At that time, our genetic ancestors depended upon products of the tree, and later upon the fruits of stalk and vine for our sustenance. Dr. Alan Walker, an anthropologist of John Hopkins University in Maryland, has done research showing that early humans were once exclusively fruit eaters. By careful examination of fossil teeth and fossilized human remains with electron microscopes and other sophisticated tools, Dr. Walker and his colleagues are absolutely certain that early humans until relatively recently, were total fruitarians. These findings were reported in depth in the May 15, 1979 issue of the New York Times.

Dr Alan Walker and his associates, anthropologists at John Hopkins University, using the most modern electronic microscopic equipment,
state: "Preliminary studies of fossil teeth have led to the startling suggestion that our early human ancestors (Australopithecus) were not
predominantly meat-eaters or even eaters of seeds, shoots, leaves or grasses, nor were they omnivorous. Instead they appear to have
subsisted chiefly on a diet of fruit. Every tooth examined from the hominids of the 12 million year period leading up to Homo Erectus
appeared to be that of a fruit-eater." - NY Times, May 1979

The essence of Walker's research is that even though humans have adopted omnivorous and carnivorous eating practices, our anatomy and physiology have not changed. We remain biologically a species of fruit eaters. The human digestive system has been adapted to a diet of fruits and vegetables for more than 60 million years of development. A few thousand years of aberrant eating will not change our dietary requirements for optimum health. The position that humans occupy in the animal kingdom is that of the Primate order, which means that, from the point of view of anthropology, our closest animal relatives are the anthropoid apes (anthropoid means "resembling man" or "man-like"). This species includes gorillas, monkeys and chimps all of whom are classified as frugivores. From the perspective of physiology, our human biology and digestion most closely resemble our closest cousin in the animal kingdom, the orangutan. Even our DNA genetic material is well over 95% identical. Humans developed on fruits just as simians and other primates in nature. In consequence, some anthropologists and biologists have classified humans as frugivores.

"The natural food of man, judging from his structure, appears to consist principally of the fruits, roots, and other succulent
parts of vegetables. His hands afford every facility for gathering them; his short but moderately strong jaws on the other hand,
and his canines being equal only in length to the other teeth, together with his tuberculated molars on the other, would
scarcely permit him either to masticate herbage, or to devour flesh, were these condiments not previously prepared by cooking."
-- Georges Cuvier (1769-1832), Regne Animal, Vol 1, p73

Scientists Confirm Our Biological Adaptations

"For millions of years our ancestors evolved on diets of plants and very lean wild game" says S. Boyd Eaton, M.D. author of The Paleolithic Prescription, and adjunct associate professor of anthropology at Emery University in Atlanta.

"Our ancestors also consumed three or more times the amount of plant foods we do, about nine daily servings of fruits and vegetables versus the average American of three or four" says Susan Krebs-Smith, Ph.D., research nutritionist at the National Cancer Institute in Bethusda Maryland. Dennis Burkitt M.D. world renowned researcher on human nutrition, explains that western diets have changed more through the processed food industry over the last few generations, than through the entire history of mankind.

".. while early humans ate some meat, we do not know how much meat they ate, nor whether they got the meat by hunting or scavenging.
It is not until much later, around 100,000 years ago, that we have good evidence about human hunting skills, and it is clear that humans
then were still very ineffective big-game hunters. Human hunters of 500,000 years ago and earlier must have been more ineffective. .."
- The Rise and Fall of the Third Chimpazee, Jared Diamond, 1991, pp.33-34

Ethnographic parallels with modern hunter-gatherer communities have been taken to show that the colder the climate, the greater
the reliance on meat. There are sound biological and economic reasons for this, not least in the ready availability of large amounts of
fat in arctic mammals.  From this, it has been deduced that the humans of the glacial periods were primarily hunters, while plant foods
were more important during the interglacials.

"Studies of frugivorous communities elsewhere suggest that dietary divergence is highest when preferred food (succulent fruit)
is scarce, and that niche separation is clear only at such times (Gautier-Hion & Gautier 1979: Terborgh 1983). Foraging profiles
of sympatric lowland gorillas and chimpanzees in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon, p.179, Philosophical Transactions:
Biological Sciences vol 334, 159-295, No. 1270


Medical News Today
Main Category: Biology/Biochemistry News
Article Date: 20 Feb 2006 - 0:00am (UK)

Humans Evolved To Be Peaceful, Cooperative And Social Animals, Not Predators
by Neil Schoenherr
Washington University in St. Louis

You wouldn't know it by current world events, but humans actually evolved to be peaceful, cooperative and social animals,
not the predators modern mythology would have us believe, says an anthropologist at Washington University in St. Louis.

Robert W. Sussman, Ph.D., professor anthropology in Arts & Sciences, spoke at a press briefing, "Early Humans on the Menu,"
during the American Association for the Advancement of the Science's Annual Meeting at 2 p.m. on Feb. 18.

Also scheduled to speak at the briefing were Karen Strier, University of Wisconsin; Agustin Fuentes, University of Notre Dame;
Douglas Fry, Abo Akademi University in Helsinki and University of Arizona; and James Rilling, Emory University.

In his latest book, "Man the Hunted: Primates, Predators and Human Evolution," Sussman goes against the prevailing
view and argues that primates, including early humans, evolved not as hunters but as prey of many predators,
including wild dogs and cats, hyenas, eagles and crocodiles.

Despite popular theories posed in research papers and popular literature, early man was not an aggressive killer,
Sussman argues.  He poses a new theory, based on the fossil record and living primate species, that primates have
been prey for millions of years, a fact that greatly influenced the evolution of early man.

"Our intelligence, cooperation and many other features we have as modern humans developed from our attempts to
out-smart the predator," says Sussman.

Since the 1924 discovery of the first early humans, australopithicenes, which lived from seven million years ago to two million
years ago, many scientists theorized that those early human ancestors were hunters and possessed a killer instinct.

The idea of "Man the Hunter" is the generally accepted paradigm of human evolution, says Sussman, "It developed from a
basic Judeo-Christian ideology of man being inherently evil, aggressive and a natural killer. In fact, when you really examine
the fossil and living non-human primate evidence, that is just not the case."

Sussman's research is based on studying the fossil evidence dating back nearly seven million years. "Most theories on
Man the Hunter fail to incorporate this key fossil evidence," Sussman says. "We wanted evidence, not just theory.
We thoroughly examined literature available on the skulls, bones, footprints and on environmental evidence, both of
our hominid ancestors and the predators that coexisted with them."

Since the process of human evolution is so long and varied, Sussman and his co-author, Donna L. Hart, decided to
focus their research on one specific species, Australopithecus afarensis, which lived between five million and
two and a half million years ago and is one of the better known early human species. Most paleontologists agree that
Australopithecus afarensis is the common link between fossils that came before and those that came after. It shares dental,
cranial and skeletal traits with both. It's also a very well-represented species in the fossil record.

"Australopithecus afarensis was probably quite strong, like a small ape," Sussman says. Adults ranged from around
3 to 5 feet and they weighed 60-100 pounds. They were basically smallish bipedal primates. Their teeth were relatively
small, very much like modern humans, and they were fruit and nut eaters.

But what Sussman and Hart discovered is that Australopithecus afarensis was not dentally pre-adapted to eat meat.
"It didn't have the sharp shearing blades necessary to retain and cut such foods," Sussman says. "These early humans
simply couldn't eat meat. If they couldn't eat meat, why would they hunt?"

It was not possible for early humans to consume a large amount of meat until fire was controlled and cooking was possible.
Sussman points out that the first tools didn't appear until two million years ago. And there wasn't good evidence of
fire until after 800,000 years ago. "In fact, some archaeologists and paleontologists don't think we had a modern,
systematic method of hunting until as recently as 60,000 years ago," he says.

"Furthermore, Australopithecus afarensis was an edge species," adds Sussman. They could live in the trees and on the
ground and could take advantage of both. "Primates that are edge species, even today, are basically prey species,
not predators," Sussman argues.

The predators living at the same time as Australopithecus afarensis were huge and there were 10 times as many as today.
There were hyenas as big as bears, as well as saber-toothed cats and many other mega-sized carnivores, reptiles and raptors.
Australopithecus afarensis didn't have tools, didn't have big teeth and was three feet tall. He was using his brain,
his agility and his social skills to get away from these predators. "He wasn't hunting them," says Sussman.
"He was avoiding them at all costs."

Approximately 6 percent to 10 percent of early humans were preyed upon according to evidence that includes teeth marks
on bones, talon marks on skulls and holes in a fossil cranium into which sabertooth cat fangs fit, says Sussman. The predation
rate on savannah antelope and certain ground-living monkeys today is around 6 percent to 10 percent as well.

Sussman and Hart provide evidence that many of our modern human traits, including those of cooperation and socialization,
developed as a result of being a prey species and the early human's ability to out-smart the predators. These traits did not result
from trying to hunt for prey or kill our competitors, says Sussman.

"One of the main defenses against predators by animals without physical defenses is living in groups," says Sussman. "In fact,
all diurnal primates (those active during the day) live in permanent social groups. Most ecologists agree that predation pressure
is one of the major adaptive reasons for this group-living. In this way there are more eyes and ears to locate the predators and
more individuals to mob them if attacked or to confuse them by scattering. There are a number of reasons that living in groups is
beneficial for animals that otherwise would be very prone to being preyed upon."


Genetically and structurally, modern man's body is the same as early man, yet what we eat is radically different. In modern society, suffering from preventable illness and chronic disease is considered the "norm". Half of all westerners die from totally avoidable heart disease, and the majority of the remainder die of cancer. Humans are not designed for processed or high-protein foods. Our ancestors consumed a much wider variety of natural plant foods than we do, some 50,000 to 100,000 edible plants, of which only 600 have been cultivated by modern agriculture. Despite the absence of dairy products, osteoporosis was rare in pre-agricultural humans primarily because of dark green leafy vegetables in their diet that supplied about 1,900 milligrams of calcium, versus just 600 milligrams that most women consume today. In addition, three times the vitamin B-12 was consumed by our ancestors, two times more folic acid, eight times more vitamin C, five times more fiber, and a whopping 10 grams of beta carotene daily, versus just one or two milligrams consumed today. Learn to eat and live in balance with your evolutionary make-up. It takes hundreds of thousands of years for the body to adapt to even small modifications in the environment. Despite drastic changes in culture, food and lifestyle, our biochemistry and physiology are still fine-tuned to diets and activity levels that existed over 100,000 years ago.


Campbell TC, Junshi C. Diet and chronic degenerative diseases:
perspectives from China.
Am J Clin Nutr 1994 May;59(5 Suppl):1153S-1161S.

A comprehensive ecologic survey of dietary, life-style, and mortality
characteristics of 65 counties in rural China showed that diets are
substantially richer in foods of plant origin when compared with
diets consumed in the more industrialized, Western societies. Mean
intakes of animal protein (about one-tenth of the mean intake in the
United States as energy percent), total fat (14.5% of energy), and
dietary fiber (33.3 g/d) reflected a substantial preference for foods
of plant origin. Mean plasma cholesterol concentration, at
approximately 3.23-3.49 mmol/L, corresponds to this dietary
life-style. The principal hypothesis under investigation in this paper
is that chronic degenerative diseases are prevented by an aggregate
effect of nutrients and nutrient-intake amounts that are commonly
supplied by foods of plant origin. The breadth and consistency of
evidence for this hypothesis was investigated with multiple intake-
biomarker-disease associations, which were appropriately adjusted.
There appears to be no threshold of plant-food enrichment or
minimization of fat intake beyond which further disease prevention
does not occur. These findings suggest that even small intakes of
foods of animal origin are associated with significant increases in
plasma cholesterol concentrations, which are associated, in turn,
with significant increases in chronic degenerative disease mortality


Metabolism 1997 May;46(5):530-7
Effect of a diet high in vegetables, fruit, and nuts on serum lipids.
Jenkins DJ, Popovich DG, Kendall CW, Vidgen E, Tariq N,
Ransom TP, Wolever TM, Vuksan V, Mehling CC, Boctor DL,
Bolognesi C, Huang J, Patten R.
Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Center, Division
of Endocrinology, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

We assessed the effect of a diet high in leafy and green vegetables,
fruit, and nuts on serum lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
Ten healthy volunteers (seven men and three women aged 33 +/- 4
years [mean +/- SEM]; body mass index, 23 +/- 1 kg/m2) consumed
their habitual diet (control diet, 29% +/- 2% fat calories) and a diet
consisting largely of leafy and other low-calorie vegetables, fruit, and
nuts (vegetable diet, 25% +/- 3% fat calories) for two 2-week periods in
a randomized crossover design. After 2 weeks on the vegetable diet,
lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease were significantly reduced
by comparison with the control diet (low-density lipoprotein [LDL]
cholesterol, 33% +/- 4%, P < .001; ratio of total to high-density
lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, 21% +/- 4%, P X .001; apolipoprotein
[apo] B:A-I, 23% +/- 2%, P < .001; and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], 24%
+/- 9%, P = .031). The reduction in apo B was related to increased
intakes of soluble fiber (r = .84, P = .003) and vegetable protein
(r = -.65, P = .041). On the vegetable compared with the control diet,
the reduction in total serum cholesterol was 34% to 49% greater than
would be predicted by differences in dietary fat and cholesterol.
A diet consisting largely of low-calorie vegetables and fruit  and nuts
markedly reduced lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease.  Several
aspects of such diets, which may have been consumed early in human
evolution, have implications for cardiovascular disease prevention.
Publication Types: Clinical trial Randomized controlled trial
PMID: 9160820 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] )


Am J Clin Nutr 1999 Sep;70(3 Suppl):532S-538S
Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease,
and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California
Seventh-day Adventists.
Fraser GE. Center for Health Research and the Department of
Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Loma Linda University, CA USA.

Results associating diet with chronic disease in a cohort of 34192
California Seventh-day Adventists are summarized. Most Seventh-day
Adventists do not smoke cigarettes or drink alcohol, and there is a wide
range of dietary exposures within the population. About 50% of those
studied ate meat products <1 time/wk or not at all, and vegetarians
consumed more tomatoes, legumes, nuts, and fruit, but less coffee,
doughnuts, and eggs than did nonvegetarians. Multivariate analyses
showed significant associations between beef consumption and fatal
ischemic heart disease (IHD) in men [relative risk (RR) = 2.31 for
subjects who ate beef > or =3 times/wk compared with vegetarians],
significant protective associations between nut consumption and fatal
and nonfatal IHD in both sexes (RR approximately 0.5 for subjects
who ate nuts > or =5 times/wk compared with those who ate nuts
<1 time/wk), and reduced risk of IHD in subjects preferring whole-grain
to white bread. The lifetime risk of IHD was reduced by approximately
31% in those who consumed nuts frequently and by 37% in male
vegetarians compared with nonvegetarians. Cancers of the colon and
prostate were significantly more likely in nonvegetarians (RR of 1.88
and 1.54, respectively), and frequent beef consumers also had higher
risk of bladder cancer. Intake of legumes was negatively associated
with risk of colon cancer in nonvegetarians and risk of pancreatic
cancer. Higher consumption of all fruit or dried fruit was associated
with lower risks of lung, prostate, and pancreatic cancers.
Cross-sectional data suggest vegetarian Seventh-day Adventists have
lower risks of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and arthritis than
nonvegetarians. Thus, among Seventh-day Adventists, vegetarians are
healthier than nonvegetarians but this cannot be ascribed only to the
absence of meat.   - PMID: 10479227

Comparing the 500 generations since agriculture and farming has developed, to the 10 generations since the Industrial Age and the single generation since computers, there have been major changes in how we live and eat in a very short period of time. Today, we are still genetically programmed to thrive on a diet of nuts, seeds, fruits and vegetables. Instead, we subsist on a diet of fat, sugar and low fiber foods alien to our body. We consume a fraction of the antioxidants, calcium, iron and other minerals our ancestors ate everyday. Its no wonder we experience epidemic rates of heart disease, osteoporosis, cancer and diabetes: all related to poor nutrition and inadequate physical activity. Humans are equipped with identical digestive apparatus as the great apes. We are not well equipped to handle concentrated fats and proteins. Monkeys in captivity decline in health on high protein diets, and improve physically and emotionally when their natural fresh produce carbohydrate diet is resumed. We are designed like other large primates to consume low amounts of protein. Oddly, many anthropologists still classify humans as an omnivore, meaning an "everything eater" like pigs, hogs, and the scavengers. Humans indeed do eat everything. But if we compare the human anatomy and digestive system to the primates who are natural frugivores, we find they are virtually identical: the intestines are both 12 times the length of the body trunk; the large intestine (colon) is convoluted, slowing the passage of food; the teeth of both man and the primates are the same; saliva is alkaline; and our skin has pores to aid in the elimination of wastes. Our human structure attests that we are frugivores, as confirmed by the functions of the human body. Every alimentary function is geared to our fruitarian dietary. Specifically, the biological, biochemical, anatomical, and physiological features of humans place us in the class of frugivore as indicated by: our dental formula and structure of our teeth, the length and structure of our digestive system, the relative size of our liver and kidneys, the bio-chemistry of our saliva and other digestive secretions, the function of our skin, the number and position of the mammary glands, the position of our eyes, the function of our sweat pores, the character of our hands and nails, the position of our reproductive organs, the character of the human placenta, and our method of physical transportation. Only man has the intelligence to plant and harvest. Regarding food, man is most adept at gardening and being a caretaker of plants and orchards. All of these factors define our biological heritage as an archetype frugivore.

Fruit is Perfect for Humans

The most conclusive scientific evidence submitted, points to fruit as being the food of our biological adaptation. This is denied by commercial interests, but an educated healthy populace would end their niche in the marketplace. Our natural diet was not formulated on the basis of laboratory analyses of food or feeding experiments on rats. It is primarily based on a study of comparative anatomy and physiology that seeks to establish the biological class of animal to which humans naturally belong in order to determine our true dietary character. No food could be more natural for us. Fruits appeal to our visual, olfactory, and gustatory senses. Our natural diet should consist primarily of fruits, nuts, and green vegetables, as practically all animals in nature consume green foliage of some type. Even the carnivore at times, consumes large amounts of vegetation. Green leafy plants may be regarded as a wild card throughout nature since whatever else an animal eats relative to their specific biological adaptations, some green leafy food is invariably included in the diet.

Eat Fruit As a Dietary Staple, NOT As An Accessory: Most "Vegetables" Are Botanically Considered Fruits

Frugivores are physiologically equipped to obtain energy primarily from the natural sugar in fruits. Humans are bestowed with a kind of "natural sweet tooth" to guide us in the selection of foods that meet our biological disposition and our caloric needs: namely, sweet juicy fruits. Our anatomy is such that we are capable of picking fruits, masticate, digest, and appropriate them with ease and efficiency. Fruits contain all the nutrients we need: vitamins, minerals, proteins (in the form of amino acids), fats, and carbohydrates (as detailed below). All seed-bearing foods are botanically defined as "fruit". This includes avocado, sweet pepper, cucumber, tomato, eggplant, even nuts and seeds. Usually one tends to define "fruit" as anything picked from a tree or bush, and a "vegetable" as foods found in the garden or dinner salad.

What is a "Fruit"?

From Webster's Dictionary comes the following definition of "fruit" which is inclusive of many constituents of green salad: A fruit is the reproductive product of a tree or other plant... the edible, succulent product, generally covering and including the seed... or mature ovary. Essentially, fruit is made of two parts: the pericarp or edible flesh, and the seed portion itself. Notice from this botanical definition of fruit when considering our fruitarian character, this does not mean exclusively sweet fruits. To enjoy an energetic, youthful, disease-free life, eat a varied diet predominantly of foods you are biologically adapted to: raw fresh fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, sprouted grains, and perhaps occasional legumes and tubers.

What is a "Vegetable"?

Strictly speaking, the definition of a "vegetable" is: Vegetables are plant forms that grow as stalks or leaf clusters, or flowering plants that do not develop into a succulent portion of edible mesocarp surrounding a seed portion. Vegetables are classified into four main categories: 1. FRUIT-BEARING VARIETY: These are commonly referred to as "vegetables" but are actually non-sweet fruits, including tomatoes, squashes, peppers, cucumbers, pumpkins, and eggplant. 2. GREEN VEGETABLES: Include the leafy greens, all non starchy vegetables, sprouts, and all cruciferous family vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower, brussel sprouts, cabbage and zucchini. 3. BULBS TUBERS AND ROOTS: Includes underground vegetables such as carrots, beets, potatoes, yams, turnips, parsnips, rutabagas, etc. Also included in this category are mildly toxic, sharp tasting vegetables such as garlic, onions, scallions, leeks and radishes. Eat these in extreme moderation, if at all (for further detail see: Stimulants and Supplements: Literally A Waste of Energy---Understanding Compensatory and Non-Compensatory Stimulation). 4. FUNGI: These include mushrooms, algae and seaweed vegetables. These foods also contain toxins. Eat these in extreme moderation, if at all. The bulk of our diet should consist of raw fresh fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, sprouted whole grains, legumes and tubers for three main reasons: This prevents overeating concentrated foods that otherwise may lead to constipation; This insures an abundance of vitamins and minerals from raw, fresh produce; It provides the needed bulk, necessary for normal elimination. Practically all animals in nature consume green foliage of some type. Even the carnivore, at times, consumes large amounts of vegetation. Plants are high-fiber, high-water content foods. The low-fiber, low-water content meat based diet of the carnivore requires plant food to keep the colon cleansed, since flesh is naturally constipating. Green leafy plants are eaten to a lesser or greater extent throughout nature. Whatever else an animal eats relative to its specific adaptations, some green leafy food is invariably needed in the diet.

Criteria For Determining Your Most Natural Foods

Add quality years to life by eating mostly or entirely of foods that are: A). WHOLE, not fragmented B). RAW, not cooked C). PLANT BASED, not of animal origin. Food must be largely NON-TOXIC. Toxins are substances treated as poisons by your body that irritate the system. Caffeine from coffee and tea; nicotine from tobacco; uric acid from meat, fish and poultry; mustard oil from onions and garlic; allicin from garlic; oxalic acid from spinach and beet greens; and phytic acid from wheat are a few examples. Circulation is stimulated when these are consumed as a defensive response, to move the toxic irritants to the eliminative organs. The basis of most disease lies in consuming toxic food, drink, and abnormal substances including pharmaceutical and recreational drugs that cannot be incorporated into plasma or body tissue (see: The Evolution and Progression of Disease). Only fresh ripe fruits are largely non-toxic as are most vegetables, nuts and seeds. The high-water content of fresh, raw produce is used by the body to maintain a clean internal state. Water is the medium in which body fluids are formulated, bathing every single cell of the trillions in your body. The less toxic food and drink consumed, the less energy is expended in eliminating noxious substances. As a result, fewer illnesses manifest. The bulk of food should be consumed in its natural whole, RAW state. Fire destroys living tissue. Raw food is living substance whose enzymes are still active and functionally intact. Excessive cooking destroys nutrients. Not only are nutrients unavailable after being overly heated, but worse the burnt residues become toxic. Raw produce is replete with nutrients especially in ENZYMES that help digestion, thereby conserving the body's digestive enzyme pool. Digestion is one of the most energy expending metabolic processes. Raw fruit meals conserve energy by decreasing expenditure of labor intensive, complex digestive tasks. (See: The Magic of Fresh Produce). Raw food enzymes are destroyed at low cooking temperatures, just 117 degrees Fahrenheit. Overly cooked food taxes digestion, wastes energy, and adds toxins to your system. Food must be easily and efficiently digested and assimilated. Digestion takes an enormous amount of energy. The less energy drain on your system, the more available for health restoration and your life pursuits. Nutrients within raw fresh fruits are predigested and require only to be thoroughly chewed, liquified and swallowed. Pre-digested nutrients are economical to the body requiring little energy expenditure for assimilation. Fruit sugar for instance, is readily absorbed into your bloodstream within minutes when properly combined. (See: Proper Food Combining). FRUITS ARE THE MOST EASILY DIGESTED OF ALL FOODS when eaten alone on an empty stomach. Enjoy fruit meals often, green salads, and raw or conservatively steamed plant foods. Food must supply your CALORIC needs. About 90% of your nutrient needs are for glucose (sugar). Calories from glucose provide fuel for energy but all calories are not created equal. Calories from whole fresh produce are clean-burning since they exist synergistically with vitamins, minerals, fiber and nutrients known and unknown as prepackaged by nature. On the contrary, calories from refined junk foods are toxic. They are composed of "empty" calories, devoid of nutrients that have been removed during factory processing. White flour, white bread, white rice, white sugar and corn starch are examples. Simple unrefined sugar from whole fresh raw fruit is healthy, ready made energy, the most readily usable form of body fuel. Complex carbohydrates from starches need to be cooked which destroys nutrients, and demands complex enzymatic digestive processes. Carbohydrates in fruit are easily and efficiently converted to blood glucose: the body's primary source of fuel. EAT MORE FRUIT TO BEST MEET YOUR CALORIC NEEDS. Overall food consumption must be alkaline in metabolic reaction. Your blood and circulation AT ALL TIMES maintains a slightly alkaline condition between 7.35--7.45 pH, otherwise diseases of aging, coma, and death result from acidosis. Alkalinity is enhanced by eating foods that are high in alkaline mineral content. (See: The Ten Commandments of Health: Health Commandment #3---Thou Shalt Keep Thy Blood Sweet Rather Than Sour). Alkaline minerals include calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium and iron. Fresh, raw fruits and vegetables are alkaline forming foods. Acid forming foods are high in acid minerals: sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine and manganese. ANIMAL FOODS, MEAT, EGGS, GRAINS and MOST NUTS AND SEEDS are acid forming foods. For an energetic, youthful life, your diet must be at least 85% alkaline forming, and no more than 15% acid forming foods. EAT MORE FRESH PRODUCE to avoid diseases of aging. Food must supply your protein needs. Proteins are broken down into amino acids before being used by your body. Individual amino acids are assimilated into cell structure, whereas large undigested protein molecules are not. Your body recycles two-thirds of its protein needs through its "amino acid pool". This amino acid source comes from regular cell turnover death and renewal via cell division occurring each moment of life (See: The Truth About Protein). You need less than 20 grams of protein daily, even though meat and dairy industries tell us we need four or five times that amount. Consuming cooked animal protein causes disease. Cancer, osteoporosis and numerous age-related diseases are linked to excess protein intake. Cancer cells, like healthy cells, are proteinaceous in nature. Cancer cells multiply wildly within toxic internal environments of absorbed, partially digested, deaminized amino acids and coagulated protein molecules both of which result from heat application of cooking. Fresh raw fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds however, provide non-toxic protein of high biological value WITH ALL ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS intact.  Food must supply adequate vitamins. Whole fresh produce foods are vitamin rich. Raw fresh fruits and vegetables that have not undergone processing, refining, preserving or fragmentation are loaded in all nutrients, known and unknown. When your diet is dominated by fresh produce, supplementation is totally unnecessary. Contrary to health food store advertising, vitamin supplements are ALWAYS unnatural and largely unabsorbable or unassimilable. GET YOUR VITAMINS FROM FIELD, ORCHARD and FARM, NOT THE PHARMACY or supplements. True "health food" is human food, your natural fruitarian diet. Food must supply adequate minerals. Whole foods are rich in minerals. Raw, fresh fruits and vegetables that have not undergone processing, refining, preserving or fragmentation are loaded in ORGANIC minerals the body needs. Heat from cooking and commercially processed packaged foods renders minerals INORGANIC that are just as toxic as if you attempted to satisfy your mineral requirements by eating soil. Only plants can directly absorb and utilize inorganic minerals during photosynthesis. For humans, INORGANIC MINERALS ARE METABOLICALLY UNUSABLE. When your diet is dominated by fresh produce, supplementation is totally unnecessary. Moreover, even if you DO NOT get enough fresh produce in your diet, supplements cannot compensate. Contrary to health food store advertising, mineral supplements are ALWAYS unnatural and largely unabsorbable or unassimilable. GET YOUR MINERALS FROM FIELD, ORCHARD and FARM, NOT THE PHARMACY or supplements. Food must supply adequate essential fatty acids. Your need for dietary fat is very low. The liver creates all the cholesterol you need. All "essential" fatty acids are supplied in fresh produce. The conventional American diet ranges from 37-45% SATURATED, ARTERY CLOGGING FAT most of which is high in cholesterol. Raw fruits and vegetables are only 1-5% fat, low in saturation with virtually NO CHOLESTEROL. The inclusion of avocados, raw nuts and seeds raises your intake to 10-25% fat OF HIGH BIOLOGICAL VALUE, totally unsaturated. Food must be water sufficient. Excessive thirst except under conditions of extended vigorous exercise and exceedingly warm climates, is usually an indicator of a toxic body. Toxins are held in suspension within the medium of water. The body then demands extra water, and thirst be quenched when toxins are present. Eating a diet of mostly fresh, raw fruits and vegetables contains 78-95% pure water and eliminates the need to drink extra liquids. LOAD UP ON FRESH PRODUCE, and excessive thirst will be a thing of the past. Food must be rich in fiber. Your body needs a fiber sufficient diet to guarantee the natural rhythmic (peristaltic) action of your colon, and to maintain proper tone of your gastrointestinal tract. Our traditional diet of low-fiber animal foods is a major cause of colon cancer and constipation, which is unheard of in those who subsist on a plant-based fresh produce diet. RAW fruits and vegetables are loaded in moist gentle fiber. Food must be appealing to your senses. Digestion starts with sight and smell. The very thought of food and its actual appearance triggers the flow of gastric juice in preparation for a meal. The ripe fragrance, vibrant colors and delicious flavors of fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds provide a gustatory delight to all the senses.

Health Requires Adherence To Our Biological Adaptations

Foods of our natural adaptation are the building blocks of balanced meals for humans. Fruits and succulent vegetables provide nutrients in proportion to the body's ability to utilize them. Our development in nature has occurred around the foods that best serve us. We adjusted so as to thrive on them. Our physiological adaptations are so tailored that we can handle with ease and efficiency the proteins, fats and starches as they exist in fresh, ripe, raw fruits while receiving our primary energy needs: caloric-rich unrefined whole carbohydrates. The more foods to which we are adapted that we consume, the more nutrients we derive. Foods that we are biologically equipped to efficiently handle are readily digested and their nutrients swiftly absorbed. Fresh fruits and vegetables fill this bill ideally. Many different diets adequately provide all the nutrients required to sustain human life, yet the overall effect on health of these different diets varies drastically. This is why a healthful / optimum diet cannot be formulated solely on the basis of the nutritional analysis of food. Food eaten must not only provide correct quantities and proportions of vital nutrients but also be well suited to the human digestive apparatus. If a food contains abundant vitamins, minerals, and / or protein but also contains irritating substances toxic to the body, it cannot be regarded as a natural wholesome food for human consumption. Tobacco leaves are loaded in minerals, but contain high concentrations of numerous toxins. Meat is high in protein, is high in saturated fat and uric acid while being devoid of minerals and fiber. Incidentally, in nutrition the word "natural" DOES NOT mean that a particular food or substance comes from a plant or other source in nature. Rather, it means the foodstuff meets our biological needs and adaptations. Such "natural" plants, including tobacco, poppies, foxglove, belladona, poison ivy, etc., grow in nature but are deadly to humans. In relation to health, the term "natural" applies only insofar as it is normal to our well being.

Based upon man's digestive physiology, the following raw foodstuffs make up our most natural diet (listed in order of preference relative to the food's biological value): 1. Fresh fruits  2. Succulent fruit-like vegetables (such as tomatoes)  3. Leafy greens and sprouts  4. Non-starchy vegetables  5. Nuts and seeds.The following foods, while not optimum, can be handled by human digestive physiology in moderate amounts when properly combined: 1. Starchy vegetables  2. Grains  3. Cereals and  4. Legumes. The following foods, while usually eaten on a vegetarian diet, are not well adapted to man's physiology and therefore place an undue strain on the organism: 1. Free oils  2. Dairy products. Finally, this last group of foods is definitely disruptive of human health and are not compatible with our physiology: 1. Meat  2. Eggs  3. Cooked foods 4. Refined starches and sugars  5. Salt, herbs, spices, seasonings, dressings, etc.  6. All processed, preserved, fragmented, and artificial foods. Those foods in the first list are most compatible with human physiology and those who desire optimum health should eat predominantly of these in moderate amounts, in proper combination. Due to various anatomical and physiological weaknesses and defects that the body suffers over years of improper eating and living, not everyone can adhere to this dietary ideal with complete success however, without first detoxifying the body (for detail see: Fasting and Elimination Diets). Even then, the diet should be tailored to individual needs.

Look To Nature For Answers

If we wish to achieve the highest level of health to which our potential permits, we must respect our natural adaptations and our biological heritage. You would never expect deer, cattle, or other herbivores to thrive on anything except grass, as this is their adaptation. A living organism is what it is in nature and cannot act contrary to its nature while striving to maintain a healthful state. This fact is equally true for mankind. Our adaptation is to a diet made up of mostly fruits, vegetables, nuts, and certain edible seeds. We serve ourselves best by observing our natural dietary needs. Food is our most immediate contact with nature. As such, it must be suited to the laws that govern the body, otherwise it breaks down. By our very nature we cannot function properly contrary to this mandate without major compromises to health and the manifestation of abnormal (although prevalent) chronic disease. While the human body is remarkably flexible, it cannot adapt in the long run to foods that are beyond the limits of our digestive enzymes or that have been radically altered from their natural form without major health deterioration and premature aging taking place. To build health we must adopt more scientifically accurate and biologically appropriate ways of eating and living. At first, these changes may seem strange but only because our former habits and beliefs were based on false theories and entirely erroneous notions whose motives are profit for food manufacturers and not health for consumers.

While circumstances and conditions may vary, the principles of nutrition are NOT subject to change. All humans are fundamentally alike with similar organs, cells, and tissues which may vary in efficiency but not in their method of function.

Nature provides all that man (and every species) requires to live in health. Human needs are most fully and completely met so long as our biological needs are fulfilled. By using nature's food packages, health is most easily achieved provided that other requisites of well being are likewise attended to (see: Essentials of Health). When our species conforms to the laws of our very nature, the human organism prospers. To develop optimum health, humans must eat entirely or mostly of those foods designed specifically for their structural and functional requirements, and must eat them relatively whole, without alteration of any kind.

Your Health Destiny is in Your Hands:
Most Causes of Disease are Within Total Control of the Individual

Animal products, decaying and fermented foods, and inorganic elements cannot be eaten without causing damage to the body. Cooking also pathologically alters food as heat chemically changes it and returns molecules to a largely unusable inorganic state. The closer the food is eaten as yielded by field and orchard, the more it is fit to support life.

Compromises result in compromised health and longevity. In no area of life do we flaunt our biological disposition so flagrantly as in our dietary practices. Food is our area of greatest deviation from our natural norms. Forty-five percent of the average American's caloric intake consists of fats that have been fried, refined, denatured, and rendered carcinogenic. Animal products make up a substantial amount of the American diet. Cooked foods (all of which beget leucocytosis), poisonous habits (including drugs, alcohol, caffeine, smoking, condiments, etc.) all contribute to pathology and destruction of health. Humans cannot partake of such nutritionally antagonistic "foods" to which they are not well adapted and maintain a long healthy life. The key to a perpetual state of well being is biologically correct living practices. Our eating habits in particular should be determined by our physiological adaptations. Animals in nature live in accord with their biological heritage and eat according to their natural diet. In a pristine environment, they do not develop chronic disease. They live out their normal life span and die a relatively peaceful, painless, natural death. Humans have strayed from their natural diet and for this reason, regularly suffer chronic disease and early death. Consider, for example, that America consumes less than 10% of its correct fruitarian diet. In addition, since the bulk of America's fruit is consumed by less than 25% of our populace, it should be no surprise that there is such a great preponderance of disease among us. All transgressions of our natural diet have pathological results whether evident or not. The body functions perfectly within the context of its natural dietary needs and other important vital health practices. The causes of bodily disease are multiple, and are related to all the various facets of our existence: nutrition, exercise, rest, mental and emotional factors, relationships with others, our philosophical and spiritual well-being. The most significant causes however, are those related to our most fundamental biological needs (food, shelter). Those relating to our mental, emotional and spiritual life complete the picture. Within modern society, most causes of disease are within the total control of the individual. By taking control of our life and applying self-management that is based on biologically proven facts, health is built. Optimum levels of wellbeing can only be achieved by living in accordance with the innate dictates of our human physiology. Humans who adhere to their natural diet and observe the other modalities of healthful living, can expect to live to a healthy, ripe old age and pass on naturally. We can eat anything we wish, this is your free choice. If you're satisfied with the ordinary low level of health "enjoyed" by modern society, then dietary change is difficult. Good health is not merely the absence of symptoms and pain, rather optimum health produces marked improvements in our physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual facets of living such that it becomes a joy to live according to our systemic needs. Living healthfully means observing our natural mandate. The body is fully self-operating and self-sufficient if its needs are furnished. Basically, these needs are foods to which we are biologically adapted, relatively pure air and water, adequate rest and sleep, vigorous physical activity, sunshine, recreation and play, emotional poise, security of life, love, and self-mastery. We should put into our body only pure (distilled) water, fresh air, sunlight, and a diet predominating in fresh, raw fruit with a moderate amount of fresh, raw vegetables, nuts, seeds, and perhaps occasional meals that include beans and legumes cooked conservatively. Eat foods to which the body is intended to function most normally and ideally on, plus follow the other essential needs of living and the vast majority of our ailments will largely be a thing of the past. If anyone gives you a hard time about this diet and lifestyle, challenge them to try it for two weeks to notice the dramatic difference themselves. If they are still not interested, lovingly tell them (with a smile on your face) to:


Arthur Michael Baker MA, NHE is a natural health educator, publisher, author, producer of cable TV public access natural health education programs,
and former Dean of Students at Life Science Institute, Austin Texas. He enrolled nearly 1000 students over a two year period into the original natural hygiene
correspondence course developed by T.C. Fry.  Art is a former public high school science teacher in Los Angeles, and is the founder of
Self-Health Care Systems, a natural health education service.

World Copyrights reserved 2000
Arthur M. Baker MA, NHE Self-Health Care Systems


'Linneaus, who introduced binomial nomenclature (naming plants
and animals according to their physical structure) wrote:
"Man's structure, external and internal, compared with that of other animals
shows that fruit and succulent vegetables constitute his natural food."

The Human "Omnivore": a mythological beast

The Obligate Frugivore

The Atkins Diet
http://www.AtkinsFacts.org -- debunking the fad

creatures  |  Limes_&_Lemons creature