| NEWS FROM
The Voice of the Irish Republican Movement.
223 Parnell Street, Dublin 1
229 Falls Road, Belfast
MÁS spéis leat an stair, ní foláir nó go bhfuil History Ireland léite agat ó am go chéile. Tá eagrán an earraigh léite agamsa agus molaim é do na léitheoirí. Go háirithe an t-alt le Bernadette Cunningham, Geoffrey Keating’s Foras Feasa ar Éirinn, atá bunaithe ar a leabhar sise, The World of Geoffrey Keating: history, myth and religion in seventeenth century Ireland (BÁC 2000).
Athscrúdaitheoir (nó revisionist) eile a bhí sa gCéitinneach, mar mheabhraigh Liam Ó Muirthuile dom an lá faoi dheireadh. Fíor dhó. B’amhlaidh a bhí na “SeanGhaill” .. . sliocht na bplandóirí – i gcruachás éigin sa tseachtú aois déag. Ní fhéadfaí”Gaeil” a thabhairt orthu, mar phobal, toisc gur leis an bpobal a mhair in Éirinn roimh theacht do na Normannaigh an teideal úd, agus iad bródúil as.
Caitliceach Rómhánach a bhí sa gCéitinneach, mar a bhí formhór na SeanGhall lena linn, agus mar a bhí na Gaeil. Theastaigh ón staraí (Foras Feasa ar Éirinn) aon phobal amháin a dhéanamh de na Gaeil agus de na SeanGhaill. Uaidh sin a tháinig an coincheap, Éireannach, Éireannaigh.
Ach bhí cuspóir eile fós ag an gCéitinneach, mar a bhí stair “ghlan” a bhronnadh ar a phobal féin, agus deis don bpobal “athaontuithe” glacadh leis an rí Stíobhairteach mar rí dlistineach (.i. Séamus 1, Cathal 1, etc). Mar is eol dúinn,d’éirigh go maith leis an gCéitinneach san dá chuspóir, agus an fhianaise againn i gcónaí sa bhfilíocht (viz. Aisling Ghéar, le Breandán Ó Buachalla).
Níor mhiste a mheabhrú dár léitheoirí gur chuir na Gaeil cogadh 400 bliain ar na Normannaigh is a sliocht; agus gur lean a gcoimhlint ar son na saoirse i ngach ré go dtí ár lá féin. Ar na daoine ab fearr a throid in éadan na nGall bhí sinsear liom féin (ar thaobh m’athar de), mar a bhí in Art Mac Murchadh Caomhánach. Síolrú go díreach ó Art a bhí im’ mhaimeó.
Is dóigh liom go bhfuil an Céitinneach le moladh as an téarma “Éireannach” a dhéanamh faiseanta, mar a déarfá. Beart polaitiúil áisiúil a bhí ann. Trua nach dtig leis na húdaráis sa stát seo cloí leis. Ach ní hea. Ní mór dóibh cloí leis an mBéarla. Tugtar faoi ndeara nuair a thagann ionadaithe an stáit seo le chéile in éindí lena gcomhuimhrithe de chuid na Mór-Roinne gurb é an focal IRELAND (in ionad “Éire”) atá mar fhógraí ar a ndeasc. Ach ina dteangacha féin a chuireann gach tír eile a dúchas in iúl.
Ceart go leor: Tá “Éire” sách maith d’airgead reatha an stáit, agus dá chuid stampaí, agus do roinnt rudaí eile; ach nuair a théann muid thar lear, sin scéal thairis. Náire, a déarfas tú. Ní náire go dtí é. Agus maidir leis na stampaí sin, b’éigean domsa, agus do chorrchompánach, troid fhada a chur ar an státseirbhís go dtí go rabhadar sásta géilleadh dúinn agus an síneadh fada a chur ar an gcéad litir d’ainm na tíre ar na stampaí. “Ualach” ia ciall leis an bhfocal gan an séimhiú air .. .
Hibernia: B’shin an t-ainm a bhronn na Rómhánaigh ar an tír seo ( ionann hiberno na Laidine agus “geimhreadh”). Uaidh sin a chum siad aidiacht, le “Éireannach” a chur in iúl. Ach d’imigh sin ar ball sa Laidin agus ina áit tháinig Scottus (iolra, Scotti) a chiallaigh Éireannach nó Albanach (duine a labhair Gaeilge ó dhúchas). Ar na daoine ba chlúití, sa mheámaois ar an Mhór-Roinn bhí Ériugena (a chiallaíonn ‘rugadh in Éirinn’). Scoláire mór a bhí ann, agus ardmheas ag Charlemagne air, sa gcaoi gur minic dó a bheith ag ithe is ag ól in éindí leis an rí céanna.
Lá, agus Ériugena i measc na ndaoine a bhí suite ag bord leis an rí, shíl Charlemagne go mbainfeadh sé greann éigin as bheith ag spochadh faoin Éireannach, agus d’fhiafraigh: “Céard é an difríocht idir Scottus agus sottus (amadán, nó, sa mBéarla, sot)?”
I Laidin, mar a bhí an nós sa mhéanaois agus, dáiríre, ar fud na hEorpa, go dtí an 17ú, ar a laghad, a bhí an chaint, nó teanga idirnáisiúnta ab ea í. Chun “an difríocht” a chur in iúl, b’amhlaidh a d’úsáid an rí briathar, distare, a bhfuil níos mó ná brí amháin aige. Thug sin deis don Éireannach muga magadh a dhéanamh den rí nuair a d’fhreagair sé: “Mensa, Domine” (an bord, a Thiarna; gurbh é an bord a scair (distat) an Scottus ab sotto). Is fada ó chualas an scéal. Súil agam go bhfuil sé go cruinn agam anseo!
Níl sa téarma “Ireland” ach ceann a théann siar d’aimsir na Lochlannach in Éirinn. Ériu, ainm na tíre lena linn siadsan, agus ní dhearna siad mórán leis an bhfocal sin ach “land” a cheangal leis. Focal Ind-Eorpach is ea land. Sa nGaeilge, tá sé againn mar eireaball ag focail áirithe, féach: Leabharlann, otherlann, siopalann, driúisleann, caclann, agus mar sin de.
I gcoitinne, is cosúil gur maitheas níos mó ná éinní eile a rinne Foras Feasa ar Éirinn. Ar a laghad ar bith, mhínigh an stair úd go raibh ábhar bróid ina stair féin ag muintir na hÉireann agus gur bréagadóirí cruthanta a bhí i bhformhór na staraithe ón oileán taobh linn agus iad i mbun maslaí faoin tír seo ar chúiseanna polaitiúla. Íocshláinte shíceolaíoch ab ea é.
-- Deasún Breatnach
|Type or paste text or Web address (beginning with http://) here:|
|Powered by Systran|
IN A tribute at the grave of recently deceased Mayo Republican, Jackie Clarke, at Leigue Cemetery, Ballina on February 11, Ruairí Ó Brádaigh, President of Republican Sinn Féin, said:
"Jackie Clarke, or Seán Ó Clérigh, as he often signed himself, was an exceptional man. From his boyhood he was an active Republican – but he was also a successful businessman.
"He was closely associated with the events we commemorate today and it would not be appropriate to pass by his recently-filled grave without paying tribute to his life’s work for the unity and freedom of Ireland.
"A young schoolboy at Blackrock College, Dublin, he was not in a position to be present at Seán Mac Neela’s funeral in Ballycroy following his death on hunger strike in 1940 in Arbour Hill, Dublin for political status.
"But he was very active on the committee charged with erecting a memorial at the hunger striker’s grave a decade later. With his movie camera, Jackie Clarke captured on film the stirring scenes at the unveiling of that memorial in 1952. He also filmed many Republican commemorations and demonstrations throughout the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s and 1980s.
"He was the prime mover in the erection in 1966 of the fine memorial at the Republican Plot in this cemetery where local men Michael Tolan, killed by British forces in 1921, and Joseph Healy, done to death by Free State forces in 1923 were buried. Little did we think on that summer day in 1966 that within a decade two young Mayo hunger strikers would rest side by side in the same Republican Plot.
"Jackie Clarke, with great moral courage, faced down all 26-County State opposition to Michael Gaughan and Frank Stagg’s funerals. He presided at the last obsequies at the Plot for Michael Gaughan and also at the ceremonies following the symbolic funeral for Stagg after his body was snatched from us in mid-air by the unchristian action of the Dublin administration of the time. He introduced General Tom Maguire that day to give the funeral oration over Stagg.
"Jackie also served the people of Ballina diligently during his 20-year membership of the Urban District Council from 1955 on. Over the years he accumulated a significant collection of books on Republican and historical topics. Knowing the ways of book-collectors he was careful to obtain, whenever possible, two copies of each volume.
"With his originals of documents 200 years old he assisted in the research for the 1798 Song-book, The Year of the French, Bliain na bhFrancach, in which the people of Mayo stepped on to the stage of history, as they did again in the Land War of the 10s and yet again in the Black-and-Tan and Free State wars of 1919 to 1923.
“Si monumentum requiris, circumspice”. If you seek the monument, look around you. The impressive memorial at Seán McNeela’a grave in Ballycroy; the worthy and well-kept Republican Plot in this cemetery where rest Gaughan and Stagg with the Republican martyrs of the 1920s; the work done for the people of Ballina over 20 years on the Urban Council; the extensive film archive of Republican occasions in Mayo, Galway and elsewhere in Ireland secure for all time in the Irish Film Institute in Dublin and the fine library of Republican books and papers safe in the hands of his loving family – these are Jackie Clarke’s monument.
“He is also remembered with great affection by the Gaughan and Staff families for the solace, comfort and solidarity he most memorably brought to them in their moments of great grief when many powerful hands were raised against them in 1974 and 1976.
“Let us now move on from here to complete today’s mission in this place sacred to the dead.”
EIGHTY years have this week passed since 12 gallant Corkmen were cut down in their prime by the Black-and-Tan lead of England at Clonmult on February 20, 1921. In addition two of those not murdered on the spot were later executed at Victoria Military Barracks, Cork, on May 5, 1921.
Many East Cork readers in particular will be familiar with some aspects of the story of the Clonmult patriots. Many of these courageous young men formed the core of Irish insistence that the democratic decision of Ireland for independence following the 1918 general election would be upheld. Their fight against England’s undemocratic occupation of Ireland had been well and bravely fought through 1919, 1920 and into 1921. The core of the East Cork IRA Flying Column was at Clonmult undergoing intensive training during late January/February 1921.
The able IRA column OC, Diarmuid O’Hurley (second cousin of Charlie O’Hurley, West Cork Brigade OC) departed the training camp to make preparations for an attack on a train carrying troops between Cork and Cóbh, at Cóbh Junction, on Tuesday, February 22, 1921. Diarmuid was accompanied by the vice-commandant Jack Aherne and Capt Patrick Whelan.
Efforts to impede English military movement using trains had been successful at Millstreet and at Upton a short time previously. The attack at Upton though did give rise to heavy Volunteer (three dead) and civilian casualties ( six dead) owing to the heavier than expected military presence on board the train and their indiscriminate returning of fire when challenged.
Jack O’Connell of Cóbh was appointed Acting OC in the absence of Diarmuid O’Hurley. His instructions were to prepare the Column for departure so as to arrive at their billet at Dooneen by dusk on Sunday, February 20, 1921.
At about 4.15pm as final preparations were being made on that sunny spring Sunday afternoon for departure, Michael Desmond and John Joe Joyce, who were filling water bottles at the well near the house, were surprised by a party of the Hampshire Regiment of the British army who had begun to surround the thatched farmhouse.
Realising the mortal danger all their comrades were now in, they selflessly opened fire to alert all their comrades and ruthlessly fought their way back into the house to try and stand with them. Both Michael Desmond and John Joe Joyce were mortally wounded and had only moments to speak to their comrades of the danger they were in before they died.
The surrounded house in which East Cork’s IRA column sheltered now came under sustained enemy fire. The men from Midleton, Cóbh, Carrigtwohill and adjoining areas fought back bravely. Jack O’Connell, the vice OC, next decided to lead a party of four men in an attempt to escape and summon assistance from the North-east Cork IRA Flying Column. Michael Hallahan and Richard Hegarty were both mortally wounded in this attempted breakout. James Aherne got 200 yards from the house before he too was shot down. Jeremiah O’Leary retreated to re-join his comrades in the house. Jack O’Connell, the vice OC, alone made it through enemy lines.
As Jack O’Connell, the vice OC, now made desperate attempts in the darkening evening to locate the North-East Cork Flying Column who were billeted in the Ballynoe area, the Black-and-Tans arrived on the battle scene an hour or so after the start of the engagement.
The spirits of the young East Cork men, notwithstanding the trap in which they were now caught and the loss of 25% of column strength still fought bravely on. They sang patriotic songs, including Amhráin na bhFiann, in response to enemy calls on them to surrender. Fusillade after fusillade emanated from those trapped in the thatched house in response to all English taunts.
The position of the brave column members remaining began rapidly to deteriorate after the encircling Black-and-Tan and Hampshire Regiment forces successfully set the thatched roof of the house on fire. A contemporary ballad summed up the situation with the following lines:
On top of roof and window,
Those boys stood up to fight,
’Till the burning of the cottage,
And no escape in sight.
Vols James Glavin and Jeremiah O’Leary next tried to rush through a breech the column members had made but both fell back from a hail of enemy bullets with serious head wounds. No option now existed but to destroy arms and surrender. Rifles were broken and consigned to the fire. The Black-and-Tans however would take no prisoner and one by one the brave defenders were murdered after their surrender. Vols David Desmond (brother of courageous Michael who died early on in the engagement), David Dennehy, first cousins, Liam Aherne, Jeremiah Aherne, James Glavin, Christopher Sullivan and J Morrissey were all massacred by the Occupation Forces.
The remaining Volunteers were saved by virtue of carrying the wounded Jeremiah O’Leary out from the burning building on a makeshift stretcher and the late intervention of an English officer in favour of the few surviving prisoners. These included Capt P Higgins, severely wounded Vol Jeremiah O’Leary, Walsh, Garde, Harty, Moore and O’Sullivan.
The latter two, Cóbhmen, Vols Maurice Moore and P O’Sullivan, would later also be killed on May 5, 1921 following their ‘trial’ before an English military ‘court’.
Tom Barry lead the famous West Cork Flying Column to victory at the young age of 21 in both the Kilmichael and Crossbarry ambushes. Tom Barry once described the 12-day period of February 1921 as “the darkest 12 days of the Tan War” owing to the severe IRA casualties suffered in a variety of engagements during February 1921.
The number of Clonmult martyrs at 14 represented, as far as this writer is aware, the largest list of casualties on the Irish side for any single engagement in the Tan War.
The Clonmult Martyrs died that we might be (as Pádraig Mac Piarais wrote):
Not merely free but Gaelic as well
not merely Gaelic but free as well.
Go mbeidh Éire fós ag Cáit Ní Dhuibhir. Ar dheis Dé go raibh a nanamacha go léir.
Make a donation to SAOIRSE for its internet service.
DO NOT SEND CASH IN THE POST.
SAOIRSE -- Irish Freedom, 223 Parnell Street, Dublin 1, Ireland
Telephone: 00-353-1-872 9747 FAX: 00-353-1-872 9757
Web layout by SAOIRSE -- Irish Freedom
March 6, 2001
Send links, events notifications, articles, comments etc, to the editor at: firstname.lastname@example.org marked "attention web-editor".